Archive for May, 2014

I was speaking to one of the editors at Hackett, Rick Todhunter, the other day about their early modern philosophy catalogue.  He asked what early modern texts I thought were most in need of teaching editions. By ‘teaching editions’ I mean, of course, slim, low priced books, usually containing excerpts of primary texts in English translation, that can be used in teaching early modern philosophy to undergrads.  Contrast such books with the critical, scholarly editions, which are usually complete, not excerpted, contain scholarly apparatuses, and so on. One cannot teach early modern philosophy to undergrads with Noel Malcolm’s Leviathan, for example!

My suggestion to him was Margaret Cavendish’s Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy, which has a great critical edition, but no teaching edition. I’d love to see a reasonably priced, edited version of that text so that I could teach with it.

So, Mod Sqaudders, for what other texts would you like to see Hackett (or someone) publish teaching editions? The publishers are listening!

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[This is part of a series of blog posts about articles in the new, open-access journal, Ergo]

Leibniz’s mill argument is one of very few Leibnizian arguments frequently invoked in contemporary philosophy of mind. How exactly this argument works, however, is controversial among Leibniz scholars. In the past few months, two stimulating articles devoted exclusively to the mill argument have come out: Marleen Rozemond’s “Mills Can’t Think: Leibniz’s Approach to the Mind-Body Problem” (Res Philosophica 91.1, 2014) and Paul Lodge’s “Leibniz’s Mill Argument Against Mechanical Materialism Revisited” (Ergo 2014). Rozemond’s paper was published first, but as Lodge acknowledges in a footnote, he only became aware of this paper after writing his own, and therefore does not otherwise engage with it. Hence, I’d like to put these two excellent analyses in conversation with each other here. In fact, even though the two papers disagree on several fundamental questions, they also turn out to help each other in interesting ways.

Let me start with the primary texts under discussion. The most famous formulation of the mill argument occurs in Monadology section 17:

we must confess that perception, and what depends on it, is inexplicable in terms of mechanical reasons, that is, through shapes and motions. If we imagine that there is a machine whose structure makes it think, sense, and have perceptions, we could conceive it enlarged, keeping the same proportions, so that we could enter into it, as one enters into a mill. Assuming that, when inspecting its interior, we will only find parts that push one another, and we will never find anything to explain a perception. And so, we should seek perception in the simple substance and not in the composite or in the machine. (transl. from AG 215)

Leibniz does, however, offer versions of this argument elsewhere as well, as both Rozemond and Lodge acknowledge. Particularly interesting are the versions from Leibniz’s Preface to the New Essays (NE 66f.), a letter to Bayle (G 3:68/WF 129), a draft of a letter to Queen Sophie Charlotte (LTS 259), and “On the Souls of Men and Beasts” (G 7:328/SLT 63). I will not quote those passages here, but they can be found in Rozemond’s and Lodge’s articles.

Turning now to the two recent discussions of the mill argument, I will start with Lodge’s because it provides a useful categorization of the different interpretations of the argument that have so far been advanced. The argument, Lodge claims, has the following structure:

Premise: Perception, sensation, and thought cannot be explained in mechanical terms.

Conclusion: Therefore, matter (as understood by mechanistic philosophers) cannot perceive, sense, or think.

Lodge then lists four different interpretations of the implicit justification for the argument’s premise. They can be paraphrased as follows:

  1. The Explanatory Gap Interpretation (Stewart Duncan): Shape, size, and motion are the only modifications of matter, and we cannot conceive how these modifications or their combinations could give rise to perception, sensation, or thought.
  2. The Unity of Consciousness Interpretation (Margaret Wilson): Conscious perceptions possess a special unity, and material things, since they are infinitely divisible, cannot exhibit, or give rise to, this kind of unity.
  3. The Unity of Perception Interpretation (Marc Bobro and Paul Lodge; Stewart Duncan): Perception can only take place in a unity, and material things, since they are infinitely divisible, cannot exhibit this kind of unity.
  4. The Activity/Passivity Interpretation (Marleen Rozemond; Paul Lodge): The power to perceive, sense, or think is an active power, and matter, since it is passive, cannot possess active powers.

It is important to note that the controversy over the mill argument is not primarily a controversy over what Leibniz’s views about perception or the possibility of thinking machines are. Interpreters in fact generally agree that Leibniz denies that machines are capable of thought or perception, and that he believes that only simple, immaterial unities could possibly possess perceptions and thoughts. Most scholars furthermore agree that because all natural states of a monad originate within the monad, perceiving involves some kind of activity. The controversy is, rather, about what exactly the structure of the various versions of the mill argument is. Even though this is not a disagreement about Leibniz’s fundamental views, it is an important interpretive issue, and not only because the mill argument is so frequently invoked in contemporary philosophy of mind. It is also important for evaluating how powerful and compelling Leibniz’s argument is, especially to readers who do not already accept large portions of Leibniz’s system. One crucial aspect of the controversy, then, is the question to what extent we already need to accept controversial Leibnizian doctrines in order to find the argument compelling. Relatedly, the controversy concerns the relations between Leibniz’s fundamental views, for instance between activity and perception. Even interpreters who agree that monads are active in perceiving, after all, may disagree on whether activity is a necessary condition for perceiving.

Lodge rejects the first of the four interpretations listed above as too minimalistic because he sees Leibniz as pointing to particular features of perception that make a mechanical explanation impossible. He also rules out the second interpretation, but on textual grounds: Leibniz seems to be concerned with perception generally, not conscious perception in particular. Yet, Lodge argues, the third interpretation is the best way to make sense of some versions of the mill argument, while the fourth interpretation works better for a few other versions.

I am not going to go into more detail of Lodge’s argument here. Instead, I will turn to Rozemond’s interpretation of the mill argument and end with some observations about the most significant differences between her reading and Lodge’s.

Rozemond argues that the activity/passivity interpretation is the best way to understand all versions of Leibniz’s mill argument, even the ones in the Monadology and the letter from Bayle, which Lodge thinks are better understood in terms of the unity of perception interpretation. She moreover adds a fifth candidate to the list of possible interpretations of the mill argument.

5.   The Internal Action Interpretation (Marleen Rozemond): Perception is an internal action, which means that it cannot consist in the operation of various parts of an entity. Whatever a machine does, however, consists in the operation of its various parts, and therefore machines cannot perceive.

Rozemond provides convincing textual evidence that Leibniz uses ‘internal action’ in two different ways: sometimes it is contrasted with transeunt action, at other times it is contrasted with actions consisting in the operations of parts of the agent. She moreover suggests—plausibly, I think—that the latter understanding of the term ‘internal action’ is at work in passages in which Leibniz argues that matter cannot perceive because perception is an internal action.

This fifth interpretation appears to me to be closely related to the unity of perception interpretation. Determining just how closely they are related would require a much more thorough examination of how exactly Leibniz understands the unity of perception, and of what exactly he means when he calls perception an internal action. It may or may not turn out that they are versions of the same interpretation. Either result, however, would be interesting and advance our understanding of the mill argument.

If the internal action interpretation does not turn out to be a version of the unity of perception interpretation, Rozemond has discovered yet another plausible way of understanding the mill argument. This new interpretation might even solve some of the interpretive problems that the other candidates cannot handle convincingly.

If the internal action interpretation does turn out to be a version of the unity of perception interpretation, on the other hand, this very realization, and the examination that led to it, would presumably afford us a deeper understanding of what the relation between perception and simplicity or unity is for Leibniz. Moreover, we could then subsume at least some of the passages in which Leibniz invokes internal action and which Lodge subsumes under interpretation (4), under interpretation (3) instead. This would be interesting for Lodge, who understand some passages in accordance with the activity/passivity interpretation because they invoke the notion of internal action. On the basis of the textual evidence Rozemond presents that Leibniz sometimes uses ‘internal action’ to refer to an action not resulting from the operation of parts of the agent, one could argue that worries about unity or simplicity are after all doing most of the work in those versions of the argument. This strategy would work particularly well for the passage from a draft of a letter to Sophie Charlotte, which Lodge reads in accordance with the activity/passivity interpretation. It might also help explain why Leibniz brings up internal actions in the Monadology, directly after the mill argument, as well as in the letter to Bayle. This is one way in which Rozemond’s discussion helps Lodge’s argument.

Rozemond claims—correctly, I think—that in the texts she discusses, Leibniz does not explicitly identify what I call the internal action interpretation as underlying the mill argument. Instead, she argues that Leibniz sometimes brings up internal action as an additional reason for rejecting thinking matter, in addition, that is, to considerations about the activity of perception and the passivity of matter. Rozemond also wonders whether Leibniz might be relying implicitly on the internal action interpretation in some versions of the mill argument. Yet, she does not mention the draft of a letter to Sophie Charlotte, which Lodge discusses, and in which Leibniz provides a version of the mill argument that fits perfectly with the internal action interpretation. Leibniz there writes,

supposing whatever traces, machines, or motions you like in the brain, one will never find the source of perception or of the reflection on oneself, which is a truly internal action, any more than one could find it in a watch or in a mill. For crude or subtle machines differ only in degree. (Leibniz and the Two Sophies, p. 259)

This is one way in which Lodge’s discussion helps Rozemond: it supplies a version of the mill argument in which Leibniz explicitly employs the strategy Rozemond finds most promising.

There are many thought-provoking aspects of both Rozemond’s and Lodge’s paper that I was not able to explore here. For instance, Rozemond’s article includes an excellent discussion of the differences between Kant’s “Achilles Argument” and Leibniz’s mill argument; her paper also contains an argument against reading the mill argument in the Monadology in accordance with the unity of perception interpretation. I hence strongly recommend that those who are interested in the topic read both of these excellent papers and investigate these fascinating questions further. Even though the two articles have cleared up the main issues significantly, I agree with the last sentence of Rozemond’s paper: “Much work remains to be done.”

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Kate Norlock kindly posted this tidbit for me on Feminist Philosophers. Here it is again!

Feminist Philosophers

The following is from Jessica Gordon-Roth, Assistant Professor at CUNY-Lehman. The emphasis was added by me, because it is splendid:

I asked my ‘Modern’ students how studying women philosophers shaped their understanding of the early modern period. To my surprise many took the opportunity to express how studying these women affected their understanding of philosophy more generally.

“Reading female philosophers helped me not only understand and appreciate the role of women in philosophy…it also expanded and challenged my understanding of many philosophers. For example Catharine Trotter Cockburn’s defense of Locke expanded on some vague points Locke made (which could be what Locke meant to say). So it opened my eyes to the possible implications of Locke’s arguments. Princess Elisabeth presented faults and questions about Descartes’ work which I would have never thought of myself and so it helped and inspired me to dig into Descartes’ arguments and all subsequent arguments…

View original post 355 more words

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I want to say a little bit about the way Margaret Cavendish thinks about causation.[1] A key aspect of that is an inversion, or set of inversions, of what other modern philosophers were up to. One prominent trend in modern philosophy was what is called mechanism. The central mechanist idea is that many natural phenomena are to be explained as the results of mechanical interactions. The shapes, sizes, and motions of the small parts of things explain, the mechanists argued, more than one might otherwise think. The mechanism of a clock provided a useful example: its apparently non-mechanical ability to tell the time is explained by the shapes, sizes, and motions of the parts inside. The mechanist project, so to speak, was to explain more and more of nature in this sort of way. Descartes provides an obvious example of someone taking this sort of approach. Hobbes provides an even better one, thinking that this sort of mechanical explanation applies to human cognition too.

That Hobbes and Descartes were wrong about things in this general area is one of the themes of the first part of Cavendish’s Philosophical Letters [PL].


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Lisa Downing Interviewed

Our readers might be interested in this interview with Lisa Downing by 3am Magazine.

Check it out!

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CFP: International Hobbes Association

The International Hobbes Association will be sponsoring two sessions at the APA Eastern Division meetings, December 27-30, 2014, Marriott Philadelphia Downtown Baltimore, MD – Marriott Waterfront. You are invited to submit an abstract for a paper presentation or to volunteer to serve as a critic/commentator. Papers selected for presentation will also be strongly considered for publication in Hobbes Studies.

By May 30, 2014, please electronically submit your abstract (400 word maximum) or, for commentators, your CV, to, IHA Sovereign (Presiding Officer), Rosamond Rhodes.

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Thanks again to everyone who participated in the recent discussion of Spinoza’s Metaphysics: Substance and Thought. Anyone who wants to catch up on the discussion can do so via this post, which links to all the comment and reply posts.

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Given that it is Spinoza season here at the Mod Squad, Lewis suggested that I might also announce the publication of my book, The Spiritual Automaton: Spinoza’s Science of the Mind, out now with Oxford. For those who might be interested, below is an abstract and table of contents.

Eugene Marshall presents an original, systematic account of Spinoza’s philosophy of mind, in which the mind is presented as an affective mechanism, one that, when rational, behaves as a spiritual automaton. The central feature of the account is a novel concept of consciousness, one that identifies consciousness with affectivity, a property of an idea paradigmatically but not exhaustively instantiated by those modes of thought Spinoza calls affects. Inadequate and adequate ideas come to consciousness, and thus impact our well-being and establish or disturb our happiness, only insofar as they become affects and, thus, conscious. And ideas become affects by entering into appropriate causal relations with the other ideas that constitute a mind. Furthermore, the topic of consciousness in Spinoza provides an eminently well-placed point of entry into his system, because it flows directly out of his central metaphysical, epistemological, and psychological commitments—and it does so in a way that allows us to see Spinoza’s philosophy as a systematic whole. Further, doing so provides a thoroughly consistent yet novel way of thinking about central themes in his thought. Marshall’s reading provides a novel understanding of adequacy, innateness, power, activity and passivity, the affects, the conatus, bondage, freedom, the illusion of free will, akrasia, blessedness, salvation, and the eternity of the soul. In short, by explaining the affective mechanisms of consciousness in Spinoza, The Spiritual Automaton illuminates Spinoza’s systematic philosophical and ethical project as a whole, as well as in its details, in a striking new way.

Table of Contents

Chapter One: Introduction (more…)

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How To Teach Modern Philosophy

There have been several wonderful discussions here about teaching modern philosophy. Lewis has posted on this topic several times, as has Tim Yenter. The discussions in the comments on each of these four posts are also really lively and interesting. I myself have posted on this topic.

I’m indebted to these discussions in my recent essay, “How To Teach Modern Philosophy,” which appeared in the journal Teaching Philosophy. I can’t be sure, but it may also be the first time The Mod Squad has appeared in the notes or bibliography of a journal article!  In any event, I thought that the Mod Squad community might find the article to be of some use.  Here’s the abstract:

This essay presents the challenges facing those preparing to teach the history of modern philosophy and proposes some solutions. I first discuss the course goals for such a course, as well as the particular methodological challenges of teaching a history of modern philosophy course. Next a standard set of thinkers, readings, and themes is presented, followed by some alternatives. I then argue that one ought to diversify one’s syllabus beyond the canonical set of six or seven white men. As a first step toward that goal, I propose several ways to include women philosophers in the syllabus. I then lay out assignments and in-class activities that aid students toward the course goals. I conclude with a consideration of the challenges and rewards of teaching modern philosophy.

As I am always looking to improve my teaching, I’d be delighted if anyone has feedback.  Thanks (and apologies for the self-promoting nature of this and my next post!).

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I was sent the following information from Jacqueline Broad at Monash University. It’s the sort of opportunity that makes me wish I was just starting grad school! I hope that those of you who are interested in early modern women and who might have very promising undergraduates or MA students who are looking to go on in philosophy will pass this along:

We are seeking a suitably qualified PhD candidate to carry out research on the topic of freedom in the early modern and/or enlightenment periods (c. 1650-1800). The candidate will be based in the Philosophy department at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, and supervised by Dr Jacqueline Broad. The candidate’s research will be connected to a larger project, ‘Women on Liberty:  From the Early Modern Period to the Enlightenment (1650-1800)’, funded by an Australian Research Council Discovery Project grant (project no. DP140100109; chief investigator, Dr Broad).

 Project description: The main purpose of this ARC project is to further our understanding of moral, political, and metaphysical concepts of freedom in women’s philosophical writings of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The project examines women’s ideas about liberty as freedom from external interference, freedom from domination, and freedom as self-determination. It also examines interconnections between women’s moral and metaphysical conceptions of free will and their political views.

The successful candidate will be expected to carry out independent research that complements this larger project in some way. For example, research proposals might focus on either individual male or female philosophers of the periods, or on specific philosophical issues to do with gender and freedom in this era, or on topics pertaining to freedom alone.

 Candidate requirements: Applicants must have, or expect shortly to have, a first-class honours degree, or masters by research degree, in philosophy, politics, history of ideas, or feminist theory. Further details of eligibility requirements to undertake a PhD at Monash are available at http://www.monash.edu/migr/apply/eligibility/phd/

From January 2013, Monash University has introduced Graduate Research Programmes, which will incorporate coursework and research training skills development. For more information, please go to: http://www.monash.edu/migr/why-monash/phd/index.html

Start date: The successful candidate will be expected to take up the stipend by either second semester 2014 or first semester 2015.

 Remuneration: We offer a stipend to the value of $AUD28,715 per annum full-time rate (tax-free stipend), for three years. Prospective international applicants should note that international fees will be paid for the life of the scholarship.

 Please send an expression of interest via email to Dr Jacqueline Broad at Jacqueline.Broad@monash.edu, including:

  • Full Academic Record and Curriculum Vitae.
  • A brief statement on (i) why this project is suited to your background and interests, and (ii) your proposed research topic.
  • Contact details of two academic referees.
  • Indication of when you would be available to take up scholarship.

Closing date for expressions of interest: Monday, 2 June 2014. 

Any enquiries: Dr Jacqueline Broad, Jacqueline.Broad@monash.edu

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